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| Posté le: Jeu 13 Sep 2018 - 10:44 Sujet du message: societies and even the subjugation of their people
|People have inhabited southern Africa for thousands of years. Members of the Khoisan language groups are the oldest surviving inhabitants of the land Authentic Isaiah Thomas Jersey , but only a few are left in South Africa today–and they are located in the western sections. Most of today’s black South Africans belong to the Bantu language group, that migrated south from central Africa, settling in the Transvaal region sometime before AD 100. The Nguni, ancestors of the Zulu plus Xhosa, occupied most of the eastern coast by 1500.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the Cape of Good Hope Authentic Gary Harris Jersey , arriving in 1488. However, permanent white settlement did not begin until 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a provisioning station on the Cape. In subsequent decades, French Huguenot refugees, the Dutch, along with Germans began to settle in the Cape. Collectively Authentic Emmanuel Mudiay Jersey , they form the Afrikaner segment of today’s population. The establishment of these settlements had far-reaching social and political effects on the groups already settled in the area, leading to upheaval in these societies and even the subjugation of their people.
By 1779, European settlements extended throughout the southern part of the Cape and also east toward the Great Fish River. It was below that Dutch authorities as well as the Xhosa fought the first frontier war. The British gained control of the Cape of Good Hope at the end of the 18th century. Subsequent British settlement and rule marked the beginning of a long conflict between the Afrikaners and the English.
Beginning in 1836, partly to escape British rule as well as cultural hegemony along with partly out of resentment at the recent abolition of slavery, many Afrikaner farmers (Boers) undertook a northern migration that became known as the “Great Trek.” This valuable movement brought them into contact as well as conflict with African groups in the area Authentic Dikembe Mutombo Jersey , the most formidable of which were the Zulus. Under their powerful leader, Shaka (1787-1828), the Zulus conquered most of the territory between the Drakensberg Mountains as well as the sea (now KwaZulu-Natal).
In 1828, Shaka was assassinated plus replaced by his half-brother Dingane. In 1838, Dingane was defeated along with deported by the Voortrekkers (people of the Great Trek) at the battle of Blood River. The Zulus Authentic Devin Harris Jersey , nonetheless, remained a potent force, defeating the British in the historic battle of Isandhlwana before themselves being finally conquered in 1879.
In 1852 as well as 1854, the independent Boer Republics of the Transvaal as well as Orange Free State were created. Relations between the republics and even the British Government were strained. The discovery of diamonds at Kimberley in 1870 as well as the discovery of large gold deposits in the Witwatersrand region of the Transvaal in 1886 caused an influx of European (mainly British) immigration as well as investment. In addition to resident black Africans, many blacks from neighboring countries also moved into the area to work in the mines. The construction by mine owners of hostels to house and also control their workers set patterns that later extended throughout the region.
Boer reactions to this particular influx and even British political intrigues led to the Anglo-Boer Wars of 1880-81 and 1899-1902. British forces prevailed in the latter conflict Authentic Carmelo Anthony Jersey , and the republics were incorporated into the British Empire. In May 1910, the two republics and the British colonies of the Cape and Natal formed the Union of South Africa, a self-governing dominion of the British Empire. The Union’s constitution kept all political power in the hands of whites.
In 1912, the South Africa Native National Congress was founded in Bloemfontein along with eventually became known as the African National Congress (ANC). Its goals were the elimination of restrictions based on color plus the enfranchisement of and even parliamentary representation intended for blacks. Despite these efforts the government continued to pass laws limiting the rights plus freedoms of blacks.
In 1948, the National Party (NP) won the all-white elections plus began passing legislation codifying and even enforcing an even stricter policy of white domination and racial separation known as “apartheid” (separateness). In the early 1960s Authentic Allen Iverson Jersey , following a protest in Sharpeville in which 69 protesters were killed by police and even 180 injured, the ANC and also Pan-African Congress (PAC) were banned. Nelson Mandela plus many other anti-apartheid leaders were convicted along with imprisoned on charges of treason.
The ANC as well as PAC were forced underground and even fought apartheid through guerrilla warfare and even sabotage. In May 1961, South Africa abandoned its British dominion status and also declared itself a republic. It withdrew from the Commonwealth in part because of international protests against apartheid. In 1984, a new constitution came into effect in that whites allowed coloreds and even Asians a limited role in the national government as well as control over their own affairs in certain areas. Ultimately, however Authentic Alex English Jersey , all power remained in white hands. Blacks remained effectively disenfranchised.
Popular uprisings in black as well as colored townships in 1976 and even 1985 helped to convince some NP members of the need for change. Secret discussions between those members along with Nelson Mandela began in 1986. In February 1990, State President F.W. de Klerk, who had come to power in September 1989, announced the unbanning of the ANC, the PAC Wilson Chandler Jersey , along with all other anti-apartheid groups. Two weeks later, Nelson Mandela was released from prison.
In 1991, the Group Areas Act, Land Acts, and the Population Registration Act–the last of the so-called “pillars of apartheid”–were abolished. A long series of negotiations ensued Will Barton Jersey , resulting in a new constitution promulgat" . Cheap Soccer Hoodies China Cheap NHL Hats Cheap NBA Shirts China Cheap MLB Shirts China Cheap Soccer Shirts China Cheap NFL Hats China Wholesale Jerseys Wholesale Shirts Wholesale Hats Wholesale Hats